通勤學英語

通勤學英語

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每日英語跟讀 Ep.K206: 蛋黃酥熱賣環保署加強查核致癌「蘇丹紅」

每日英語跟讀 Ep.K206: 蛋黃酥熱賣環保署加強查核致癌「蘇丹紅」

🄴 通勤學英語

更多通勤學英語Podcast單元:每日英語跟讀Podcast,就在http://www.15mins.today/daily-shadowing精選詞彙 VOCAB Podcast,就在https://www.15mins.today/vocab語音直播 15mins Live Podcast, 就在https://www.15mins.today/15mins-live-podcast文法練習 In-TENSE Podcast,就在https://www.15mins.today/in-tense歡迎到官網用email訂閱我們節目更新通知。 每日英語跟讀 Ep.K206: EPA steps up checks for carcinogenic industrial dye in Mid-Autumn mooncakes With the Mid-Autumn Festival nearly upon us, bakery shelves are heaving with a vast array of appetizing mooncakes in a mind-boggling variety of shapes, sizes and flavors. For many Taiwanese gourmands, the venerable egg yolk pastry is a special favorite. However, in the past some unscrupulous businesses were discovered to have added the harmful industrial dye Sudan Red G to their egg yolk pastries to give the salty egg yolks a rosy-red luster. Sudan Red G was classified as a toxic chemical by the Environmental Protection Administration (EPA) in July 2018. The administration says it has been carrying out inspections since the ban but has not discovered any illegal use of Sudan Red G. However, with increased demand for egg yolk pastries during the festive season, the administration says it will intensify inspection work during the period.中秋佳節即將到來,市面上開始出現各式各樣可口的月餅,尤其蛋黃酥最受歡迎。然而過去曾發生有不肖業者為了使鹹蛋黃色澤紅潤,而添加對人體有害的工業用染料「蘇丹紅」。環保署表示,蘇丹紅色素已於二○一八年六月公告為「毒性化學物質」,近年來稽查沒有再發現業者違法使用蘇丹紅,不過考量中秋節將近,鹹蛋黃需求增加,環保署將加強稽查。In the past, some egg farms would add the carcinogenic substance to duck feed in order to give their salted duck eggs a deep color and luster. In 2017, the illegal use of Sudan Red G was detected in an online retailer’s salted egg yolk mooncakes. The poultry farm which supplied the egg yolks was required to cull its duck population and destroy its stock of duck eggs. Fraud charges were also brought against the farm. The following year, the EPA classified Sudan Red G as a category 4 toxic chemical.過去有業者為了讓鹹鴨蛋看起來色澤飽滿,在鴨隻飼料中添加有致癌風險的蘇丹紅,二○一七年曾發生網購名店月餅原料鹹蛋黃被驗出違法添加蘇丹紅,供貨畜牧場鴨隻撲殺、鴨蛋銷毀,業者被依詐欺取財罪嫌起訴,環保署則在隔年將蘇丹紅色素列為第四類毒性化學物質。Sudan Red G is in fact an umbrella term for a series of related chemical dyes that sound similar but have different molecular structures, chiefly Sudan Red I, II, III and IV, and Sudan Red 7B and G. Because the molecular structure of the Sudan Red G dye is easily soluble in oils, it is often used in industrial settings such as colorant in furniture paint, shoe polish, floor wax, car wax and oils to give products a rich color and luster.蘇丹紅其實是幾種相似但不同的分子之統稱,這幾種化學物質常作為染料,主要包括:蘇丹紅I、蘇丹紅II、蘇丹紅III、蘇丹紅IV、蘇丹紅7B、蘇丹紅G,由於蘇丹紅色素的分子結構易溶於油脂,在工業上常用於家具漆、鞋油、地板蠟、汽車蠟和油脂著色,使色澤飽滿鮮豔。Sudan Red G’s unique properties — inexpensive, easy-to-obtain, stable, and color-fade resistant — mean that it often crops up in food safety incidents. In addition to salted egg yolks, outside of Taiwan Sudan Red G has been found to have been added to chilli sauce and chilli powder; however, the group of dyes with which Sudan Red G shares a common molecular structure are listed as category 3 carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer.由於蘇丹紅便宜易取得、穩定又不易褪色的特性,因此常在食安事件中佔有「一席之地」,除了鹹蛋黃,國外也曾在辣椒醬、辣椒粉中發現添加蘇丹紅;不過這類色素的分子都被國際癌症研究機構列為第三類致癌物。EPA Toxic and Chemical Substances Bureau Director-General Hsieh Yein-rui advises consumers not to choose food products that appear overly vivid and bright, or that look unnatural. Hsieh adds that the nutritional value of egg yolks is the same whether they are yellow or red in color, and warns that customers who select egg-containing products on the basis of their bright luster may well be consuming adulterated egg yolks.環保署毒物及化學物質局長謝燕儒呼籲,消費者不要挑選顏色過於鮮豔、看起來不自然的食品,且蛋黃不論是黃色或紅色營養價值都一樣,過度在意色澤,反而可能吃進「加料」的蛋黃。Source article: https://www.taipeitimes.com/News/lang/archives/2021/09/19/2003764584

回顧星期天LBS - 印度相關時事趣聞 All about the India

回顧星期天LBS - 印度相關時事趣聞 All about the India

🄴 通勤學英語

Topic : About India - Indian Bride Shuts Down Wedding After Groom Fails Her Math Test An Indian bride canceled her wedding after her groom recited the multiplication table of two incorrectly.一位印度新娘因為新郎背錯2的乘法表,當場取消婚禮。A bride and groom who wish to remain unidentified were supposed to have the wedding for their arranged marriage on May 1 in the state of Uttar Pradesh in India.不願透露姓名的新娘和新郎本應於5月1日在印度北方邦舉行婚禮,這是一樁包辦婚姻。Skeptical of her future husband’s educational background, the bride decided to test his knowledge during the ceremony.新娘懷疑未來丈夫的教育背景,因此決定在婚禮上測試他的知識。When he failed to recite the multiplication table of two, the bride left, "saying that she could not marry someone who did not know basic math," reported INQUIRER.net.據「菲律賓每日問訊者報」網站報導,當他背不出2的乘法表時,新娘轉身離開了,「說她不能嫁給一個連基礎數學都不懂的人。」The bride’s cousin stated that the groom’s family did not inform them of his lack of education, adding that the bride was "brave" for leaving the wedding venue.新娘的表妹說,男方家庭沒有告知新郎教育程度低的事實,並補充道,新娘離開婚禮現場的做法「很勇敢」。The two families came to a compromise which included returning all gifts and jewelry to the appropriate parties.這兩個家庭達成妥協,包括同意退還所有的禮物和珠寶給對方。 Next Topic: India’s ’Angry Brides’ game wages war on dowry 印度「憤怒新娘」遊戲向嫁妝陋習宣戰 An online game in India called "Angry Brides" which seeks to highlight the problem of illegal dowry demands has attracted more than 270,000 fans.印度一款名為「憤怒新娘」的線上遊戲,旨在凸顯非法索取嫁妝帶來的問題,吸引了逾27萬名粉絲。The game by online matchmaker shaadi.com – inspired by the hugely popular "Angry Birds" game – sees players attack prospective grooms greedy for dowry with a variety of weapons, from a brick-red stiletto to a broomstick.這款遊戲由婚友網站「Shaadi.com」推出,靈感來自廣受歡迎的「憤怒鳥」遊戲,玩家可使用從磚紅色細高跟鞋到帚柄等各式武器來攻擊貪求嫁妝的準新郎。The three grooms – an engineer, a doctor and a pilot – dodge the attacks while demanding dowries starting at 1.5 million rupees. Each time a player hits a groom, he or she wins money towards a virtual anti-dowry fund.遊戲中的3位新郎分別是工程師、醫生和飛行員。他們一邊索求150萬盧比起跳的嫁妝,一邊躲避著玩家的進攻。玩家每擊中新郎一次,他或她就會贏得一筆虛擬的反嫁妝資金。The game, available as a free application on Facebook, has already attracted more than 272,000 "likes."這款遊戲在臉書上是一款免費應用程式,已吸引了超過27萬2000人按「讚」。Paying and accepting a dowry in India has been illegal since 1961, but the centuries-old tradition of the bride’s parents presenting gifts of cash, clothes, jewellery, even appliances to the groom’s family remains strong.從1961年至今,收送嫁妝在印度都是違法的,但是新娘的父母向新郎家庭贈送現金、衣服、珠寶甚至器具等禮物的傳統已有幾世紀之久,至今依然盛行。Demands for dowry often persist well past the wedding ceremonies, and in the worst cases, brides are tortured and even murdered if they or their parents do not comply.索取嫁妝的情況就算在婚禮後也揮之不去,在最壞的情況下,如果新娘或她們的父母不給嫁妝,新娘就會受到折磨甚至被謀殺。Source article: https://features.ltn.com.tw/english/article/paper/1451980; https://features.ltn.com.tw/english/article/paper/565200 Next Article Topic: About India - Toxic air in India linked to large number of miscarriages Toxic air in India and other South Asian countries could be causing large numbers of miscarriages and stillbirths, scientists said.科學家說,印度和其他南亞國家的有毒性空氣,可能正造成大量的流產和死胎案例。A study in The Lancet medical journal estimated nearly 350,000 pregnancy losses a year in South Asia were linked to high pollution levels.「刺胳針」醫學期刊一份研究估計,南亞1年有將近35萬起流產案例與高污染值有關聯。"Our findings ... (provide) further justification for urgent action to tackle dangerous levels of pollution," lead author Tao Xue of Peking University said in a statement.報告第一作者北京大學的薛濤在聲明中說,「我們的發現…提供進一步理由,要緊急行動解決達危險程度的污染」。They calculated that 7.1% of annual pregnancy losses were attributable to pollution above India’s air quality standard of 40 microgrammes per cubic metre (μg/m3), and 29·7% to pollution above the World Health Organization guideline of 10 μg/m3.他們計算,每年7.1%的流產案例,歸因於高於印度空氣品質標準每立方公尺40微克(μg/m3)的污染,29.7%的案例歸因於高於世界衛生組織指南訂出10 μg/m3標準的污染。 Next Article Topic: Indian inventor revs up corona car to drive home lockdown message 印度發明家設計冠狀病毒車宣導疫情訊息 A giant coronavirus is stalking the streets of southern India - propelled by a 100 cc engine and an inventor trying to drive home the message that Indians should stay indoors as the pandemic sweeps across the world.一個巨大的冠狀病毒在印度南部街頭出沒—被一具排氣量100立方公分的引擎和一名發明家驅動著,試圖明確傳達在大流行病橫掃全球的此刻,印度人應該好好待在家裡的訊息。Sudhakar Yadav’s wacky small single-seater car - made of fluorescent-green fibre and complete with the red crown-like spikes of the virus - has been racking up the miles in the tech hub of Hyderabad to remind fellow citizens of the dangers of COVID-19.雅達夫的古怪單人座小車,是以螢光綠色纖維製成,並加上紅色的病毒冠狀突刺造型,在科技大城海德拉巴行駛了一段時間,提醒市民同胞2019冠狀病毒肺炎的危險。"People are not scared and are still... on the streets despite the clear danger," the 67-year-old Yadav, who runs a printing business, told AFP.「儘管明顯有危險,大家還是不害怕,依舊…在街上趴趴走」,經營印刷生意的67歲雅達夫告訴法新社。"My message through the car art is to make them understand that it is dangerous to be out on the streets and the safest place right now is the home."「我透過這輛車要傳達的訊息是,希望這些人能夠了解,外出上街是危險的,現在最安全的地方就是家裡」。Source article: https://features.ltn.com.tw/english/article/paper/1436119 ; https://news.ltn.com.tw/news/world/paper/1372432 Next Article About India - ’Honk more, wait more’: Mumbai tests traffic lights that reward the patient driver There is a truth universally acknowledged by drivers in India: honk your horn loud enough and the traffic lights will surely change to green.印度駕駛人都曉得一個道理:只要喇叭按得夠響,交通號誌絕對會變綠燈。But, fed up with impatient drivers inflicting a deafening roar every time they are forced to stop, police in Mumbai have come up with a new system to punish those who cannot wait at traffic lights in silence.然而,孟買警方受夠駕駛人每次被迫停車,就會出現震耳欲聾的喇叭聲,因而設計出一套新系統,來懲罰不能安靜等待號誌轉換的駕駛人。The new system was quite simple: "Honk more, wait more."新系統相當簡單易懂:「你愈叭,等愈久。」Mumbai police installed a rigged traffic light system to tackle the problem of "reckless honkers", which resets the red traffic signal every time the sound of car horns goes above 85 decibels. For particularly honk-happy drivers, it could mean a very long wait at the lights.孟買警方安裝一套經過改造的交通號誌系統,來處理「莽撞喇叭狂」問題;只要偵測到85分貝以上的汽車喇叭聲,紅燈就會從頭開始。對於不按不爽的駕駛人,可能得在交通號誌下等到天荒地老。Mumbai was ranked as the fourth most congested city in the world, according to the TomTom traffic index, with 65% congestion and drivers spending an average of eight days and 17 hours in traffic each year.TomTom交通指數報告顯示,孟買被列為全球最壅塞城市第4名,壅塞比率達65%,駕駛人平均每年花費8天17小時塞在路上。 Next Article Topic: India returns alleged bird spy to Pakistan/印度把被指控的鳥間諜交還巴基斯坦 Indian police have released a pigeon belonging to a Pakistani fisherman after a probe found that the bird, which had flown across the contentious border between the nuclear-armed nations, was not a spy, two officials said on Friday.兩名官員週五說,印度警方把一隻屬於巴基斯坦一名漁夫的鴿子放了,在調查發現這隻飛越兩個核武國爭議邊境的鳥並非間諜以後。The Pakistani owner of the pigeon had urged India to return his bird, which Indian villagers turned over to police after discovering it.這隻鴿子的巴基斯坦主人催促印度歸還他的鳥,印度村民先前發現了牠以後交給了警方。“It’s just an innocent bird,” Habibullah, the owner of the bird, who goes by just one name, told Reuters on Friday.單名的鴿主哈比布拉週五告訴路透,「牠只是一隻無辜的鳥。」He rejected allegations that the numbers inscribed on a ring on the pigeon’s leg were codes meant for militant groups operating in the disputed region of Kashmir.對於鴿子腳環上所刻數字乃是在爭議的喀什米爾地區行動的好戰團體代號的指控,他予以駁斥。Habibullah, who lives in a village near the Kashmir border, one of the most militarised zones in the world, said the bird had participated in a pigeon racing contest and the digits on the bird’s leg were his mobile phone number.住在全球最軍事化地區之一的喀什米爾邊境附近一處村莊的哈比布拉說,這隻鳥參加了一場賽鴿大賽,牠腳上的數字是他的行動電話號碼。In 2016, a pigeon was taken into Indian custody after it was found with a note threatening Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi.2016年曾有一隻鴿子被印度扣押,在發現牠有一張威脅印度總理納倫德拉.莫迪的便條以後。Source article: https://features.ltn.com.tw/english/article/paper/1377877 ; https://features.ltn.com.tw/english/article/paper/1383670 Next Article Topic: Violence in India Threatens Its Global Ambitions Until recently, Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s campaign to portray India as a rising power seemed to be ticking along despite troubles at home.即便在國內遭遇了些問題,總理莫迪將印度描述成崛起大國的行動,直到不久前似乎還一路升溫。Much of the world remained quiet, or cautious, in recent months as India began locking up hundreds of opposition politicians and activists without charge across the country. Business executives say they are too afraid to speak out about shortcomings in the government’s economic strategy. The press complains of government intimidation.近幾個月印度開始未經起訴即在全國各地拘禁數百名反對派政治人物與社運人士,世界上許多國家卻依然保持沉默,或審慎以對。企業執行高層表示,他們因為害怕而不敢說出政府經濟策略的缺失。新聞界也抱怨受到政府恫嚇。Still, there was President Donald Trump last month, embracing Modi in New Delhi, where streets were dotted with posters declaring the “world’s oldest democracy meets the world’s largest democracy.”儘管如此,上個月還是有川普總統在新德里擁抱莫迪,當地街上到處可見寫著「世界最老牌民主國家,跟世界上最大民主國家相遇」的海報。But as the leaders celebrated each other in India’s capital, Hindu mobs began going after Muslim protesters in neighborhoods just a few miles away while the police looked on or joined in.然而,就在兩位領導人在印度首都彼此恭維之際,印度教暴徒們卻開始在數英里外的社區,追打著穆斯林抗議者,警察則袖手旁觀,甚至加入追打者的行列。Freedom House, a nonpartisan democracy advocacy organization, flagged India as a major concern.跨黨派民主倡議組織「自由之家」,將印度列為令人高度關切的國家。“The Indian government has taken its Hindu nationalist agenda to a new level with a succession of policies,” the group said, “threatening the democratic future of a country long seen as a potential bulwark of freedom in Asia and the world.”該組織說:「印度通過一系列政策,將其印度教民族主義計畫推到一個新水平,威脅到長期被視為亞洲與世界潛在自由堡壘的國家的民主前途。」In a rare move, the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights filed a petition in India’s Supreme Court to challenge a citizenship law that critics say discriminates against Muslims. Some of India’s closest partners have begun criticizing its treatment of Muslims and migrants, with condemnations coming in from Iran, the United States, Bangladesh and elsewhere.聯合國人權事務署則罕見地向印度最高法院提出請願,挑戰批評人士認為歧視穆斯林的新公民法。一些印度最親密的夥伴國已開始批評印度對待穆斯林與移民的方式,伊朗、美國、孟加拉及一些其他國家陸續發聲譴責。“If India loses that secular, democratic identity, then it loses what makes it different than other countries in Asia. We are all watching the riots in Delhi and worry they are going down a dangerous road that makes it harder for us to be a strong advocate for India,” said Rep. Ami Bera, a California Democrat who is the longest-serving Indian American in Congress.美國加州民主黨籍聯邦眾議員貝拉說:「如果印度失去這種世俗的民主身份,就會失去有別於其他亞洲國家的特色。我們都在觀察德里的暴動,並擔心他們正走上危險的道路,這將使得我們很難成為印度的強力支持者。」貝拉是美國國會中最資深的印度裔議員。One area where international officials believe that India may be particularly hurting itself is in its campaign to be granted a permanent seat at the U.N. Security Council along with other nuclear powers. Speaking on condition of anonymity, several diplomats, including some from countries that have publicly pushed for an Indian seat on the Security Council, say that their governments are now reluctant to push the issue after India’s domestic unrest has laid bare the effects of Hindu nationalism there.一些外國官員認為,印度使自身受傷最重的一個方面,就是追求與其他核武國家一樣獲得聯合國安理會常任理事國席次的行動。幾位不願透露姓名的外交官(部分來自公開呼籲給予印度安理會席次的國家)表示,在印度國內騷亂暴露出印度教民族主義對當地的影響後,他們的政府現在不願再推動印度入常案。Source article: https://paper.udn.com/udnpaper/POH0067/351636/web/

15mins Live Podcast直播 - 英文面試不該說的 Things you shouldn’t say in an interview

15mins Live Podcast直播 - 英文面試不該說的 Things you shouldn’t say in an interview

🄴 通勤學英語

歡迎通勤家族 9/20 週一下午2pm,在Clubhouse上跟我與Peddy一同閒聊、練習英語!快加入 15Mins 通勤學英語直播室吧~ 簡易大綱 1. ‘No’ "不"Saying ‘no’ outright during an interview gives the impression that you’re not willing to budge.This doesn’t mean you have to say ‘yes’ to questions where ‘no’ is an acceptable answer; it just means that you shouldn’t just end it there. 2. ‘I’ "我"Although interview is all about showing off your skills and achievements, but there’s a thin, blurry line between knowing when to attribute all the accomplishments of a project to yourself and when to include the assistance, support, and mentorship of others on the said project in conversation.  3. ‘Learn’ "學習"Do not say that you’re taking up the job to ‘learn’ because your hiring manager is looking for someone who has enough experience to give results quickly, not after a particular period of time. 4. ‘Basically’ "基本上"“Basically my job was to…” can make you seem like you don’t think much of the work you’ve done, or that you aren’t taking your accomplishments seriously. 5. Any kind of ultimatum or negatives 任何形式的最後通令或否定You are not in the position to decide how you are going to work in the company without knowing how the company functions. Think of it that way. Replace the negatives with something that can be negotiated. Using words such as may not, probably, may, and possibility will make you look like you’re willing to change if you’re shown another perspective or if a compromise can be reached. ROLE-PLAY ACTIVITY 角色扮演 Q: “Do you know how to use XYZ software?”Q: “Would you be willing to relocate to XYZ location for this role?”Q: “Can you work weekends/shifts?”Q: “Give us a brief idea of your previous job description”Q: “Would you be willing to work the night shift?”

每日英語跟讀 Ep.K205: About Babies - 父親基因決定生男生女

每日英語跟讀 Ep.K205: About Babies - 父親基因決定生男生女

🄴 通勤學英語

歡迎通勤家族週一晚上9pm,在Clubhouse上跟我與Peddy一同閒聊、練習英語!快加入 15Mins 通勤學英語直播室吧~  每日英語跟讀 Ep.K205: About Babies - Boy or girl? It’s in the father’s genes A Newcastle University study involving thousands of families is helping prospective parents work out whether they are likely to have sons or daughters.(英國)新堡大學一項涉及數千個家庭的研究,正在幫助準父母確定他們是否有可能生兒子或女兒。The work by Corry Gellatly, a research scientist at the university, has shown that men inherit a tendency to have more sons or more daughters from their parents. This means that a man with many brothers is more likely to have sons, while a man with many sisters is more likely to have daughters.該大學科研人員科里.格拉特利的研究表明,男性生更多兒子或更多女的傾向,遺傳自父母。這就意味著,兄弟多的男性更可能生兒子,而姊妹多的男性則更可能生女兒。The research involved a study of 927 family trees containing information on 556,387 people from North America and Europe going back to 1600.該研究涉及對927個家譜的研究,包含北美和歐洲自1600年以來共55萬6387人的資訊。"The family tree study showed that whether you’re likely to have a boy or a girl is inherited. We now know that men are more likely to have sons if they have more brothers but are more likely to have daughters if they have more sisters. However, in women, you just can’t predict it," Mr Gellatly explains「這項家譜研究表明,生男生女的傾向是遺傳而來的。我們現在明白了,然而,在女性身上卻無法預測這一點」,格拉特利先生解釋道。 Next Article Identical twin babies delivered by identical twin nurses 同卵雙胞胎護士接生同卵雙胞胎嬰兒A pair of identical twin girls were welcomed into the world by identical twin nurses working in their delivery room in Athens, Georgia at Piedmont Athens Regional Medical Center.一對同卵雙胞胎護士在其任職的(美國)喬治亞州雅典的皮埃蒙特雅典地區醫學中心的接生室,喜迎一對同卵雙胞胎女嬰呱呱墜地。The twin nurses, Tori Howard and Tara Drinkard, in Athens, Georgia at Piedmont Athens Regional Medical Center, helped deliver the babies, Addison and Emma Williams by chance.這對雙胞胎護士,托莉.霍華德與塔拉.錐卡德,是碰巧幫忙接生這對雙胞胎女嬰,愛蒂森與艾瑪.威廉斯。The newborns’ father, Brannan Williams, said he was really nervous about going into the delivery room, but when he heard there would be twins assisting the birth, he felt a bit more relaxed.這對新生兒的父親,布蘭南.威廉斯說,他對於進接生室真的很緊張,但當他聽說有一對雙胞胎協助接生時,就覺得心情輕鬆了點。Their mother Rebecca also works at the hospital, so he’s sure their family and the nurses will stay in touch.雙胞胎寶寶們的母親蕾貝卡也任職於這家醫院,所以寶寶的父親確信,他們一家人與這對雙胞胎護士會保持聯繫。Source article: https://features.ltn.com.tw/english/article/paper/1462977 ; https://features.ltn.com.tw/english/article/paper/1466396

每日英語跟讀 Ep.K204: 對抗氣候變遷 從日常生活做起

每日英語跟讀 Ep.K204: 對抗氣候變遷 從日常生活做起

🄴 通勤學英語

更多通勤學英語Podcast單元:每日英語跟讀Podcast,就在http://www.15mins.today/daily-shadowing精選詞彙 VOCAB Podcast,就在https://www.15mins.today/vocab語音直播 15mins Live Podcast, 就在https://www.15mins.today/15mins-live-podcast文法練習 In-TENSE Podcast,就在https://www.15mins.today/in-tense歡迎到官網用email訂閱我們節目更新通知。 老師互動信箱: ask15mins@gmail.com商業合作洽詢: 15minstoday@gmail.com 每日英語跟讀 Ep.K204: You Can Live to Fight Climate Change Climate change can seem like such an enormous problem that individual actions would have little impact. Consider Europe’s wide-ranging proposals this week to reduce its reliance on fossil fuels, including eliminating sales of new gas- and diesel-powered cars in the next 14 years.氣候變遷看似是個如此巨大的問題,個人行動幾乎產生不了任何影響力。看看本周歐洲為減少依賴化石燃料提出的廣泛提案,其中包括在14年內停止銷售汽柴油新車。But people can have an impact, experts say, both by how they spend their money and how they spend their time.但專家表示,人們可透過花錢與花時間的方式來產生影響。Mary Weathers Case, for instance, chose to offset the carbon cost of a cross-country plane trip for her family through the site Gold Standard. Case, a psychiatrist who lives in South Salem, New York, with her husband and two children, said she had been reading and watching more news about climate change during the pandemic and had been motivated to do her part after hearing about the searing temperatures in the West.例如瑪莉.威瑟斯.凱斯就透過「黃金標準網站」,為一家人選擇抵消搭機橫越美國旅行的碳成本。與丈夫和兩個小孩住在紐約南塞勒姆的精神病學家凱斯說,她在疫情期間讀到與看到更多關於氣候變遷的新聞,聽說美國西部酷熱高溫後,她受到激勵想盡一份力。What surprised her, though, was that after spending $3,000 on plane tickets to Portland, Oregon, she could offset that carbon for $150.然而,令她吃驚的是,在花了3000美元購買飛往奧勒岡州波特蘭的機票後,她可用150美元來抵銷碳排。“I was surprised that it was so cheap,” Case said.凱斯說:「我很驚訝竟如此便宜。」Buying carbon offsets for a plane trip is one way to reduce your environmental impact. But people can allocate their money in other ways, both big and small, that reduce their contribution to climate change. Take how you invest.為搭機旅行購買碳補償是減少環境影響的一種方法,但人們可透過大大小小的其他方式來分配金錢,減少助長氣候變遷。例如你的投資方式。With certain investments — namely, those that reduce or remove carbon from the atmosphere — there are defined ways to measure their environmental impact. With others, like water conservation, the metrics are not as clear because there is not an agreed-upon unit to measure.某些投資有明確的方法來衡量其對環境的影響,也就是能減少或消除大氣中的碳。另一些投資,如水資源保護,衡量標準就不那麼清楚,因為沒有一個商定好的度量單位。“The improvement in measurement is growing by leaps and bounds,” said Sir Ronald Cohen, an early venture capitalist and the author of the book “Impact: Reshaping Capitalism to Drive Real Change.”著有《影響:重塑資本主義以推動真正的變革》一書的早期創投家柯恩爵士說:「衡量方面的進步是突飛猛進的。」He advocates using what are called impact-weighted accounts, an initiative led by Harvard Business School, to evaluate a company’s positive and negative impact on the environment.他主張使用哈佛商學院帶領提出的影響加權會計帳目計畫,來評估一家公司對環境的正面與負面影響。Yet he is also open to a less-bad approach. People invested in fossil fuel companies should consider that Exxon Mobil caused $39 billion in environmental damage from its carbon impact, according to Harvard Business School estimates, while BP caused $14 billion in damage. It is like deciding which energy bar is better for you to eat: Those that have less sugar have a better health impact.不過,他也願意接受一種不太糟的方法。根據哈佛商學院估計,投資化石燃料公司的人應考慮埃克森美孚的碳影響,在環境方面造成390億美元損失,英國石油公司則造成140億美元損失。這就像決定哪種能量棒比較好:糖分較少對健康會有較好影響。Individuals can make other environmentally conscious choices as well, beyond carbon offsets or investing in cleaner energy.除了碳補償或投資清潔能源以外,個人還可以做出其他有環保意識的選擇。Source article: https://udn.com/news/story/6904/5672865