2021.09.02 國際新聞導讀-世界有30%樹種將滅絕應保護、阿富汗塔利班贏得國家但能否保住他的酋長國長久則未知、巴勒斯坦埃及約旦在開羅開元首高峰會討論以巴和平進程

2021-09-02·16 分鐘

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2021.09.02 國際新聞導讀-世界有30%樹種將滅絕應保護、阿富汗塔利班贏得國家但能否保住他的酋長國長久則未知、巴勒斯坦埃及約旦在開羅開元首高峰會討論以巴和平進程

全球約 30% 的樹種面臨滅絕風險 - 報告
總體而言,受威脅的樹種數量是受威脅的哺乳動物、鳥類、兩棲動物和爬行動物總和的兩倍。
通過路透
2021 年 9 月 1 日 03:36

根據植物園保護國際 (BGCI) 週三發布的具有里程碑意義的報告,世界上近三分之一的樹種面臨滅絕的危險,而數百種樹種瀕臨滅絕。
根據《世界樹木狀況》報告,17,500 種樹種(約佔總數的 30%)面臨滅絕風險,而 440 種樹種的野生數量不足 50 只。
報告稱,總體而言,受威脅的樹種數量是受威脅的哺乳動物、鳥類、兩棲動物和爬行動物總數的兩倍。

BGCI 秘書長保羅史密斯在一份聲明中說:“這份報告向世界各地的每個人敲響了警鐘,樹木需要幫助。”

風險最高的樹木包括木蘭和龍腦香等物種,它們在東南亞熱帶雨林中很常見。報告稱,橡樹、楓樹和烏木也面臨威脅。

樹木有助於支持自然生態系統,被認為對應對全球變暖和氣候變化至關重要。單一樹種的滅絕可能會導致許多其他樹種的消失。


棕櫚樹生長在以色列阿拉瓦地區的研發站JNF USA

“每種樹種都很重要——對依賴樹木的數百萬其他物種以及世界各地的人們來說,”史密斯補充道。
報告發現,世界樹種多樣性排名前六的國家的數千種樹木面臨滅絕的危險。最大的單一數字是在巴西,那裡有 1,788 個物種處於危險之中。
其他五個國家是印度尼西亞、馬來西亞、中國、哥倫比亞和委內瑞拉。
報告稱,樹種面臨的三大威脅是作物生產、木材採伐和畜牧業,而氣候變化和極端天氣是新出現的威脅。
報告稱,至少有 180 種樹種受到海平面上升和惡劣天氣的直接威脅,特別是加勒比地區的木蘭等島嶼物種。
儘管生物多樣性豐富的國家面臨滅絕風險的品種數量最多,但島嶼樹種面臨的風險更大。
報告補充說:“這尤其令人擔憂,因為許多島嶼都有其他地方找不到的樹種。”
Some 30% of global tree species at risk of extinction - report
Overall the number of threatened tree species is double the number of threatened mammals, birds, amphibians and reptiles combined.
By REUTERS
SEPTEMBER 1, 2021 03:36


Cherry trees

(photo credit: INGIMAGE)
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Almost a third of the world's tree species are at risk of extinction, while hundreds are on the brink of being wiped out, according to a landmark report published by Botanic Gardens Conservation International (BGCI) on Wednesday.
According to the State of the World's Trees report 17,500 tree species - some 30% of the total - are a risk of extinction, while 440 species have fewer than 50 individuals left in the wild.
Overall the number of threatened tree species is double the number of threatened mammals, birds, amphibians and reptiles combined, the report said.
"This report is a wake up call to everyone around the world that trees need help," BGCI Secretary General Paul Smith said in a statement.
Among the most at-risk trees are species including magnolias and dipterocarps - which are commonly found in Southeast Asian rainforests. Oak trees, maple trees and ebonies also face threats, the report said.
Trees help support the natural ecosystem and are considered vital for combating global warming and climate change. The extinction of a single tree species could prompt the loss of many others.

Palm trees grow at an R&D station in Israel's Arava regionJNF USA
"Every tree species matters — to the millions of other species that depend on trees, and to people all over the world," Smith added.
Thousands of varieties of trees in the world's top six countries for tree-species diversity are at risk of extinction the report found. The greatest single number is in Brazil, where 1,788 species are at risk.
The other five countries are Indonesia, Malaysia, China, Colombia and Venezuela.
The top three threats facing tree species are crop production, timber logging and livestock farming, the report said, while climate change and extreme weather are emerging threats.
At least 180 tree species are directly threatened by rising seas and severe weather, the report said, especially island species such as magnolias in the Caribbean.
Though megadiverse countries see the greatest numbers of varieties at risk of extinction, island tree species are more proportionally at risk.
"This is particularly concerning because many islands have species of trees that can be found nowhere else," the report added.
以下是阿富汗撤軍對美國外交政策的影響
混亂的退出是否會讓政府重新考慮其在其他問題上的政策,比如伊朗?
由OMRI NAHMIAS
2021 年 8 月 31 日 20:53



本週,一架 CH-46 海騎士軍用運輸直升機飛越阿富汗喀布爾。

(圖片來源:STRINGER/REUTERS)
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星期一晚上,阿富汗當地時間午夜過後不久,當日期轉移到美國自行規定的撤軍截止日期 8 月 31 日時,五角大樓宣布美國最後一架航班已離開喀布爾。
少將 第 82 空降師指揮官克里斯多納休是最後一名登上離開喀布爾的最後撤離航班的美國士兵,結束了美國在阿富汗 20 年的軍事存在。
過去兩週,美國及其盟國通過大規模而混亂的空運從喀布爾撤離了超過 123,000 人,但在戰爭期間幫助西方國家的數万人卻被拋在了後面。
據美國國務卿安東尼·布林肯 (Antony Blinken) 估計,一隊美國人想要離開,但無法登上最後一批航班,人數不到 200 人,可能接近 100 人。

英國聯軍、土耳其聯軍和美國海軍陸戰隊在喀布爾哈米德卡爾扎伊國際機場疏散期間協助一名兒童(圖片來源:SGT. VICTOR MANCILLA/US MARINE CORPS/HANDOUT VIA REUTERS)
拜登政府在過去幾週因其拙劣的退出而受到批評,這被視為拜登自 1 月 20 日上任以來最重要的外交政策舉措。
由於美國公民仍在尋找離開阿富汗的方法,因此左翼和右翼的國會議員都抨擊了政府離開的決定。
“我繼續敦促拜登政府與非政府組織和我們在世界各地的合作夥伴合作,確保我們使用所有可用資源來支持撤離所有留在美國的美國人和脆弱的阿富汗人。
參議員傑夫·默克利(D-OR)在一份聲明中說,在阿富汗並處於極度危險之中。
“美國剛剛完成從阿富汗的撤軍,許多美國人仍然被困在急切想脫身的敵軍後方,850 億美元的美國武器和設備現在掌握在塔利班手中。這是拜登總統下令的史無前例的恥辱,”眾議院外交事務委員會成員、美國陸軍退伍軍人、國會議員李澤爾丁(R, NY-1)在一份新聞稿中說。
隨著美國正式退出阿富汗,現在的問題是新的現實將如何影響政府的外交政策重點。
在這一點上還有一個懸而未決的問題是,混亂的撤軍是否會讓政府重新考慮其在其他問題上的政策,比如伊朗。
2002 年至 2006 年擔任以色列駐華盛頓大使的丹尼·阿亞隆告訴《耶路撒冷郵報》,雖然撤軍的決定是正確的,但執行不力。
“它不適合一個超級大國,”他說,並指出它應該被更好地計劃。“這損害了美國的聲譽,也可能削弱美國的威懾力,這會讓台灣等盟友感到焦慮。因此,美國從現在開始採取的任何步驟都會產生後果,”阿亞隆說。
“美國將需要通過加強與韓國和日本等盟友的關係來增強其影響力,以對抗中國和以色列,以及其他溫和的阿拉伯國家對抗伊朗,”阿亞隆補充道。
“因此,在撤軍期間與以色列總理貝內特會面是一個重要信號。”
他接著說,“伊朗唯一一次自願暫停核計劃是在 2003 年,在美國進入伊拉克之後,伊朗擔心他們會是下一個。在我看來,美國將不得不在談判中採取更強硬的立場,並向伊朗表明,如果他們不參加談判,政府還有其他選擇。我相信拜登決定向以色列總理表達這一信息並非巧合。”
華盛頓保衛民主基金會負責研究的高級副總裁喬納森·尚澤告訴《華盛頓郵報》,政府現在很可能將重點放在中國。
“目標一直是轉向亞洲,”他說。“走出中東一直被認為是實現這一目標的一種方式。當然,這忽略了美國在阿富汗只有很少的存在。無論哪種方式,轉折都是可能的。”
根據 Schanzer 的說法,很大程度上取決於崩潰的政治後果。“白宮現在將撤軍視為一項完成的複雜任務,以及美國最長戰爭的結束,”他說。
“如果這成為政治敘事,總統可能會嘗試推進其他有風險的外交政策,比如伊朗核協議。但這裡有一個教訓,拜登應該注意。與美國公然的敵人談判伴隨著巨大的風險。伊朗可以很容易地擺脫華盛頓的控制,就像塔利班所做的那樣。核武器懸而未決,風險更高。”
危機組織高級伊朗分析師 Naysan Rafati 的研究重點是伊朗核協議和伊朗的地區政策。他告訴郵報,他認為阿富汗的事件在短期內不一定會改變政府對 JCPOA 的整體態度。
“會談的目的是扭轉伊朗在其核計劃方面取得的進展,儘管他們繼續擴大濃縮鈾庫存、提高濃縮率、縮短突破時間和限制檢查,但我認為拜登團隊仍然認為相互回歸合規作為處理它的首選選項。”
“話雖如此,我認為目前的主要障礙在於伊朗方面,因為自 6 月結束第六輪談判以來,他們沒有認真參與談判,也尚未表明何時恢復,”拉法蒂說。
“延遲拖得越久,美國——我認為歐洲人也是如此——就會越多地考慮向德黑蘭發出信號,表明這種猶豫不決是不受歡迎的。例如,在 9 月中旬舉行的 IAEA 理事會會議上,他們的語氣可能會明顯變得尖銳起來。”
哈德遜研究所高級研究員邁克·普雷金特告訴《華盛頓郵報》,阿富汗的迅速崩潰“讓我們在全球的敵人和地緣政治敵人更加膽大妄為。”
他說:“生命的損失、影響力的喪失、信譽的喪失以及美國盟友失去信任,削弱了拜登政府在所有外交政策和國家安全方面的立場。”
普雷金特說:“拜登協助阿富汗的失敗是如此具有破壞性,你會認為這會讓本屆政府在考慮與伊朗伊斯蘭共和國採取的下一步行動時停下來。”
“美國外交在維也納和喀布爾都失敗了,既放棄了籌碼,又向忠誠的敵人投降。問題是,拜登團隊並不認為阿富汗是失敗的——他們為阿富汗進行了美國歷史上最大的空運而祝賀自己,卻忽略了他們讓美國人被恐怖分子包圍的事實。”
“奧巴馬-拜登團隊將伊拉克交給 ISIS 並犧牲敘利亞以確保 JCPOA,我擔心由同一個人組成的拜登團隊將犧牲伊拉克和該地區的其他盟友,以重新加入已經到期的 JCPOA, “ 他加了。
Here's how Afghanistan withdrawal could affect US foreign policy
Will the chaotic withdrawal make the administration rethink its policies on other issues, such as Iran?
By OMRI NAHMIAS
AUGUST 31, 2021 20:53



A CH-46 Sea Knight military transport helicopter flies over Kabul, Afghanistan this week.

(photo credit: STRINGER/ REUTERS)
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On Monday night, shortly after midnight Afghanistan local time when the date shifted to August 31, the US’s self-imposed deadline of withdrawal, the Pentagon announced that the last US flight had left Kabul.
Maj.-Gen. Chris Donahue, commander of the 82nd Airborne Division, was the last US soldier to step aboard the final evacuation flight leaving Kabul, bringing to end 20 years of US military presence in Afghanistan.
More than 123,000 people were evacuated from Kabul in a massive and chaotic airlift by the United States and its allies over the past two weeks, but tens of thousands who helped Western nations during the war were left behind.
A contingent of Americans, estimated by US Secretary of State Antony Blinken as fewer than 200, and possibly closer to 100, wanted to leave but were unable to get on the last flights.

UK coalition forces, Turkish coalition forces, and US Marines assist a child during an evacuation at Hamid Karzai International Airport, Kabul (credit: SGT. VICTOR MANCILLA/US MARINE CORPS/HANDOUT VIA REUTERS)
The Biden administration has been criticized in the past weeks for its botched withdrawal, seen as Biden’s most significant foreign policy move since taking office on January 20.
Members of Congress from both left and right slammed the administration’s decision to leave as US citizens were still looking for a way to leave Afghanistan.
“I’m continuing to urge the Biden administration to work with NGOs and our partners around the world to ensure that we use all available resources to support the evacuation of all Americans and vulnerable Afghans who remain

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in Afghanistan and are at acute risk, Senator Jeff Merkley (D-OR) said in a statement.
“The United States just completed its withdrawal from Afghanistan with many Americans still stuck behind enemy lines desperate to get out, and $85 billion in US weapons and equipment now in Taliban hands. This is a historic disgrace of epic proportions ordered by President Biden,” said Congressman Lee Zeldin (R, NY-1), member of the House Foreign Affairs Committee and United States Army veteran, in a press release.
As the US is officially out of Afghanistan, the question now is how will the new reality shape the administrations’ foreign policy priorities.
Another question that remains unanswered at this point is whether the chaotic withdrawal will make the administration rethink its policies on other issues, such as Iran.
Danny Ayalon, who served as Israel’s Ambassador in Washington from 2002 to 2006, told The Jerusalem Post that while the decision to withdraw was correct, it was poorly executed.
“It doesn’t suit a super-power,” he said, and noted it should have been planned better. “It damaged the US’s reputation and could also erode the US deterrence, something that can make allies such as Taiwan feel anxious. Therefore, any step that America will take from now on will have consequences,” Ayalon said.
“The US will need to build its leverage by strengthening ties with allies such as South Korea and Japan versus China and Israel and other moderate Arab states versus Iran,” Ayalon added.
“For that reason, the meeting with Israeli Prime Minister Bennett amidst the withdrawal was an important signal.”
He went on to say that “the only time that Iran voluntarily suspended its nuclear program was in 2003, after the US entered Iraq, and Iran was afraid that they would be next. In my view, the US will have to take a tougher position in the negotiations and make it clear to Iran that if they don’t come to the table, the administration has other options. I believe it is no coincidence that Biden decided to voice this message with the Israeli Prime Minister.”
Jonathan Schanzer, senior vice president for research at the Foundation for Defense of Democracies in Washington, told the Post that it is likely that the administration will now focus on China.
“The goal has always been to pivot to Asia,” he said. “Getting out of the Middle East was always framed as a way to do that. Of course, this ignores that the US had only a small presence in Afghanistan. The pivot was possible, either way.”
According to Schanzer, much depends on the political aftermath of the debacle. “The White House is now framing the withdrawal as a complicated mission accomplished, and the end of America’s longest war,” he said.
“If this becomes the political narrative, the president could try to forge ahead with other risky foreign policies, like the Iran nuclear deal. But there is a lesson here that Biden should heed. Negotiating with avowed enemies of the United States comes with great risk. Iran could very easily pull the rug out from under Washington, much as the Taliban did. And with a nuclear weapon hanging in the balance, the stakes are higher.”
Naysan Rafati, Crisis Group’s senior Iran analyst’s research is focused on the Iran nuclear deal and Iran’s regional policies. He told the Post that he doesn’t think events in Afghanistan necessarily alter the administration’s overall approach to the JCPOA in the short-term.
“The aim of the talks is to reverse the advances Iran is making on its nuclear program, and whereas they continue to expand their enriched uranium stockpiles, raise enrichment rates, shrink the breakout time and limit inspections, I think the Biden team still sees a mutual return to compliance as the preferred option for dealing with it.”
“That said, I think the main impediment right now is on the Iranian side, because they haven’t seriously engaged in negotiations since a sixth round wrapped up in June and have yet to indicate when they’ll resume,” said Rafati.
“The longer the delay drags out, the more the US – and I think the Europeans as well – will be looking at options to signal to Tehran that the dithering is unwelcome. The IAEA Board of Governors meeting that takes place in mid-September, for example, could see their tone sharpen considerably.”
Mike Pregent, senior fellow at Hudson Institute, told the Post that the quick collapse of Afghanistan “emboldened our enemies and geo-political foes across the globe.”
“The loss of life, the loss of leverage, the loss of credibility, and the loss of trust by US allies has weakened the Biden Administration’s position on all foreign policy and national security fronts,” he said.
“The Biden-assisted loss of Afghanistan is so devastating you would think it would give this administration pause when looking at the next steps it will take with the Islamic Republic of Iran,” said Pregent.
“US diplomacy failed in Vienna and failed in Kabul, both ceded leverage and capitulated to dedicated enemies. The problem is, the Biden team does not see Afghanistan as a failure – they are congratulating themselves on Afghanistan for the largest airlift in American history, leaving out the fact that they left Americans behind surrounded by terrorists.”
“The Obama-Biden team left Iraq to ISIS and sacrificed Syria to secure the JCPOA and I am concerned that the Biden team – comprised of the same people – will sacrifice Iraq and other allies in the region to rejoin a JCPOA that is already expiring,” he added.
在最後一批美軍撤離阿富汗後,塔利班用槍聲歡呼勝利
當最後一批美軍離開時,塔利班控制了喀布爾的機場,結束了長達 20 年的戰爭。許多幫助美國的美國公民和阿富汗人被拋在後面。
通過路透
2021 年 8 月 31 日 16:25



2021 年 8 月 16 日,在巴基斯坦-阿富汗邊境城鎮查曼抵達友誼門過境點後,舉著塔利班旗幟的人們聚集在一起歡迎一名從阿富汗監獄獲釋的男子(未圖示)。

(圖片來源:路透社)
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週二,在最後一批美軍撤離後,塔利班控制了機場,慶祝槍聲響徹阿富汗首都,標誌著長達 20 年的戰爭結束,使這個伊斯蘭組織比 2001 年更加強大。
塔利班分發的搖搖欲墜的視頻片段顯示,在最後一批美軍在午夜前一分鐘乘坐 C-17 飛機起飛後,戰鬥機進入機場,結束了華盛頓及其北約盟國倉促和羞辱性的撤離。
“這是歷史性的一天,也是歷史性的時刻,”塔利班發言人扎比胡拉·穆賈希德在離開後在機場舉行的新聞發布會上說。“我們為這些時刻感到自豪,我們將我們的國家從一個大國手中解放出來。”
五角大樓用夜視光學系統拍攝的一張照片顯示,最後一名美國士兵登上了從喀布爾撤離的最後一架飛機——第 82 空降師指揮官克里斯·多納休少將。
美國歷時最長的戰爭奪去了近 2,500 名美軍和估計 240,000 名阿富汗人的生命,耗資約 2 萬億美元。

2021 年 8 月 30 日,美國陸軍少將、第 82 空降師指揮官克里斯·多納休登上一架 C-17 運輸機,作為最後一名離開阿富汗喀布爾哈米德卡爾扎伊國際機場的美國軍人,使用夜視儀拍攝的照片光學。(信用:第十八空降軍/通過路透社講義)
儘管它成功地將塔利班趕下台並阻止了阿富汗被基地組織用作攻擊美國的基地,但最終還是強硬的武裝分子控制了比上次統治時更多的領土。
從 1996 年到 2001 年,塔利班殘酷地執行了他們對伊斯蘭教法的嚴格解釋,尤其是通過壓迫婦女,現在全世界都在關注該運動是否會在未來幾個月內組建一個更加溫和和包容的政府。
週二在喀布爾,銀行外排起了長隊,自從首都淪陷以來,人們試圖賺錢來支付日益昂貴的食品。
當塔利班慶祝勝利時,一方面是勝利和興高采烈,另一方面是恐懼。
“我不得不和我母親一起去銀行,但當我去的時候,塔利班(正在)用棍棒毆打婦女,”一名 22 歲的婦女說,她擔心自己的安全,不願透露姓名。
她說,襲擊發生在首都市中心喀布爾星級酒店旁邊的 Azizi 銀行分行外的人群中。
“這是我第一次看到這樣的事情,這真的讓我感到害怕。”
由於害怕塔利班報復,成千上萬的阿富汗人已經逃離該國。
過去兩週,美國及其盟國通過大規模但混亂的空運從喀布爾撤離了 123,000 多人,但許多在戰爭期間幫助西方國家的人被拋在後面。
據美國國務卿安東尼·布林肯 (Antony Blinken) 估計,有一隊美國人想離開,但無法登上最後一班航班,人數不到 200 人,可能接近 100 人。
在撤離了大約 5,000 人之後,英國外交大臣多米尼克·拉布 (Dominic Raab) 表示,在阿富汗的英國國民人數僅為數百人。
'很多心碎'
美國中央司令部司令弗蘭克·麥肯齊將軍在五角大樓的簡報會上說,美國駐阿富汗首席外交官正在最後一次起飛的 C-17 飛機上。
“這次離職讓人心碎,”麥肯齊告訴記者。“我們沒有讓我們想出去的每個人都出去。但我想如果我們再多呆 10 天,我們就不會讓每個人都出去。”
離開的美軍摧毀了70多架飛機和數十輛裝甲車。他們還禁用了​​在他們離開前夕挫敗伊斯蘭國火箭襲擊企圖的防空系統。
塔利班主要反塔利班反對派團體的兩名成員說,在塔利班週一晚上目睹美軍離開喀布爾時,至少有 7 名塔利班戰士在首都以北的潘杰希爾山谷的衝突中喪生。
在地區領導人艾哈邁德·馬蘇德 (Ahmad Massoud) 的指揮下,數千名來自當地民兵以及剩餘軍隊和特種部隊的反塔利班戰士聚集在山谷中。
五角大樓發言人約翰·柯比表示,美國軍方並不關心塔利班成員手持武器穿過喀布爾機場並調整美國直升機大小的照片。
“他們可以檢查他們想要的一切,”他告訴 CNN。“他們可以看著他們。他們可以四處走動。他們不能飛。他們不能操作……”
但他表示,“威脅環境”仍然很高。
“我們顯然擔心塔利班未來報復的可能性,我們當然,我們自己看到了,注意到 ISIS-K 繼續在阿富汗境內構成的威脅。”
ISIS-K 是伊斯蘭國的附屬機構,聲稱對周四在喀布爾機場外發生的自殺式爆炸事件負責,該爆炸事件造成 13 名美國軍人和數十名阿富汗平民喪生。
美國總統喬拜登為他堅持週二的退出截止日期的決定進行了辯護。他說,世界將讓塔利班遵守他們的承諾,讓那些想要離開阿富汗的人安全通行。
拜登曾表示,美國早就實現了它在 2001 年設定的目標,當時它驅逐了塔利班,因為塔利班窩藏了策劃 9 月 11 日襲擊的基地組織武裝分子。
但自從塔利班本月在閃電推進和美國支持的政府垮台後接管喀布爾以來,他的行為受到了共和黨人和一些民主黨同僚的嚴厲批評。
布林肯說,如果塔利班新政府不對反對者進行報復,美國準備與新政府合作。
塔利班發言人穆賈希德表示,儘管存在長達二十年的敵意,但該組織仍希望與美國建立外交關係。“伊斯蘭酋長國希望與全世界建立良好的外交關係,”他說。
塔利班有一個“酋長國”,如果他們能保住它
塔利班已經完成了對阿富汗的接管,但他們能否與幾個試圖利用美國缺席的國家一起行使自己的統治權還有待觀察。
作者:SETH J. FRANZMAN
2021 年 8 月 31 日 17:27



塔利班高級官員毛拉·巴拉達爾·阿洪德 (Mullah Baradar Akhund) 與一群人坐在一起,發表視頻聲明,該靜態圖像取自在不明地點錄製並於 2021 年 8 月 16 日發布的視頻

(圖片來源:社交媒體/路透社)
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1787 年,美國政治家本傑明·富蘭克林在離開費城的製憲會議時被問到:“我們有什麼,共和還是君主制?” 他回答說:“一個共和國,如果你能保住它。”
贏了之後,塔利班現在擁有了阿富汗伊斯蘭酋長國,用他們自己的話說,但他們將不得不努力保住它。
在某些方面,將美國在 2021 年離開阿富汗與英國在 1781 年約克鎮戰役後離開其前美國殖民地的方式進行比較是一個恰當的比較。美國並沒有真正被塔利班打敗,但許多人認為這離開的決定標誌著冷戰後美國霸權在世界舞台上的轉折點。這還有待觀察。
更大的問題是塔利班的勝利對他們和志同道合的團體意味著什麼。塔利班,在普什圖語中意為“學生”或“尋求者”,是從蘇聯撤出阿富汗的混亂中出現的。顧名思義,他們當時是年輕人。
充滿宗教信仰的阿富汗戰士聖戰者已經將蘇聯人趕出去了,但塔利班花了很多年才上台。當他們上台時,那是一個黑暗的時代。
他們炸毀了巴米揚大佛,並收容了基地組織等極端組織。這讓他們成為美國的焦點;到 2001 年底,他們在執政僅僅幾年後就被推翻了。事實上,他們甚至從未控製過整個國家。
塔利班對阿富汗造成的恐怖預示著 2003 年之後基地組織及其同僚在伊拉克的宗派種族滅絕政策,以及隨後對雅茲迪派和什葉派的 ISIS 種族滅絕。
在阿富汗迫害什葉派的是塔利班;像伊斯蘭國一樣,他們摧毀了阿富汗的歷史結構。這種抹殺考古和宗教歷史以及少數民族的企圖具有納粹般的品質。
據說今天的塔利班不一樣。這意味著如果他們能夠獲得認可和投資,他們的酋長國可能會蓬勃發展。與 1990 年代的塔利班不同,這個塔利班與中國、俄羅斯、巴基斯坦、卡塔爾和土耳其有聯繫。

2021 年 8 月 16 日,在這張取自社交媒體視頻的靜態圖像中,塔利班揮舞著旗幟穿過阿富汗喀布爾的街道。(信用:SNAPCHAT/@mr_khaludi /VIA REUTERS)
事實上,他們的一些特種部隊似乎接受了一些支持者的訓練。他們中的一些人知道如何駕駛直升機。他們從阿富汗武裝部隊和廢棄的以美國為首的聯軍裝備中繼承了一個小型武器庫。他們有無人機、黑鷹直升機和裝甲車。
今天的塔利班似乎想將那種受穆斯林兄弟會啟發的宗教極端主義政策與卡塔爾、土耳其、利比亞、加沙和其他地方可以找到的現代治國方略相結合。
他們不是 1980 年代和 90 年代那種以細胞為基礎的恐怖組織,也不是 90 年代塔利班的那種極端分子,也不是 2000 年代初期的種族滅絕世界末日虛無主義恐怖分子。簡而言之,他們聲稱,塔利班甚至不想使用恐怖主義作為手段。他們聲稱反對伊斯蘭國和其他恐怖組織。
這就是他們被卡塔爾和其他國家助產的方式。他們會見了美國,與前總統唐納德特朗普進行了交談,並會見了喬拜登總統的中央情報局局長。他們正在培養負責任的酋長國級別的權力,這似乎是共識。
“我們可以與他們合作”就是這樣的敘述。目標不僅僅是與塔利班“溫和派”合作,就像西方在德黑蘭與“溫和派”合作的方式,而是相信塔利班有責任並將確保阿富汗安全。
美國希望塔利班能夠負責任地管理他們的酋長國。
“聲明是積極的,”美國特使扎爾邁哈利勒扎德 8 月 28 日在推特上寫道。“我們、我們的盟友和國際社會將要求他們遵守這些承諾。”
“塔利班現在面臨考驗,”他本週表示。“他們能否帶領他們的國家走向一個安全繁榮的未來,讓他們的所有公民,無論男女,都有機會發揮他們的潛力?阿富汗能否向世界展示其多元文化、歷史和傳統的美麗和力量?”
週一,美國國務卿安東尼·布林肯說:“美國的軍事飛行已經結束,我們的軍隊已經離開阿富汗。美國與阿富汗交往的新篇章已經開始。這是我們將用我們的外交領導的。我們將讓塔利班遵守他們對外國國民、簽證持有者和處於危險中的阿富汗人行動自由的承諾。這方面的國際合唱團很強大,而且會一直很強大。”
塔利班面臨的一個大問題是他們如何處理接下來的幾個月。許多西方國家已將其外交官遷往卡塔爾,卡塔爾現在似乎是喀布爾的權力掮客。
土耳其想進入並經營喀布爾的機場。塔利班希望盡快讓機場運行。此外,該伊斯蘭組織不希望美國再進行任何空襲,例如周末顯然殺死一個阿富汗家庭的無人機襲擊。
與此同時,塔利班將希望引進中國、俄羅斯、伊朗、巴基斯坦、馬來西亞和土耳其的投資機會。他們希望消除任何反對意見,例如在潘杰希爾山谷。他們還希望讓廢棄的設備繼續工作,以確保國家安全。
這些都是大任務。但他們可能會得到卡塔爾和其他國家的支持,這些支持現在將公開。他們將不得不決定在多大程度上讓這些外國在喀布爾管理事務方面擁有發言權。
他們有一個酋長國,如果他們能保住的話。他們是否願意接待哈馬斯和其他組織,例如來自伊德利卜的 HTS,並為其他想要轉變為國家的恐怖主義軍隊提供指導還有待觀察。
前任大使。Dan Shapiro 將擔任伊朗特使的顧問
這位前駐以色列大使將擔任處理與伊朗間接談判的團隊的兼職高級顧問。
由OMRI NAHMIAS
2021 年 8 月 31 日 12:16



美國大使丹·夏皮羅(Dan Shapiro)為新年干杯。

(圖片來源:臉書)
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美國國務院週一證實,在奧巴馬政府期間擔任美國駐以色列大使的丹·夏皮羅將返回國務院擔任高級顧問。他將成為羅伯馬利伊朗談判團隊的成員。
“我們很高興歡迎美國前駐以色列大使丹尼爾·夏皮羅回到國務院,”國務院發言人說。“丹已加入特使馬利的團隊,擔任政府特別僱員和兼職高級顧問。” AXIOS 於週日首次報導了夏皮羅的任命。
據國務院發言人稱,“美國-伊朗政策將大大受益於他的才能和經驗的外交官的參與。” 他們指出,夏皮羅也是“我們計劃成為一小組兼職顧問中的第一個,他們將增加特使團隊的觀點和知識的多樣性。”
自 1 月上任以來,拜登政府在維也納參加了與伊朗的六輪間接談判,為兩國重新遵守 2015 年核協議尋求途徑。伊朗人。然而,在兩個月前,就在新總統易卜拉欣·賴西宣誓就職前不久,談判開始停滯,另一輪談判尚未安排。
美國總統喬拜登週五告訴以色列總理納夫塔利貝內特,當談到伊朗時,他的政府“將外交放在首位,看看這會把我們帶到哪裡”。
貝內特總理在華盛頓會見拜登總統(圖片來源:AVI OHAYON - GPO)
“但如果外交失敗,”總統補充說,“我們準備轉向其他選擇。” 它呼應了一位高級政府官員周三在會議前發表的類似信息,標誌著語氣的轉變。
白宮在周五晚上提供了拜登和班納特之間對話的宣讀資料,稱“領導人討論了中東面臨的最嚴峻挑戰,包括伊朗構成的威脅。”
被推薦
白宮在一份聲明中說:“總統明確承諾確保伊朗永遠不會發展核武器。” “領導人審查了阻止和遏制伊朗危險地區行為的步驟。他們重申致力於建設性工作並深化合作,以解決以色列針對伊朗和其他威脅的安全的各個方面。”
Former amb. Dan Shapiro to serve as adviser to Iran envoy
The former ambassador to Israel will serve as a part-time senior adviser to the team that handles the indirect negotiations with Iran.
By OMRI NAHMIAS
AUGUST 31, 2021 12:16



US AMBASSADOR Dan Shapiro toasts the New Year.

(photo credit: FACEBOOK)
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Dan Shapiro, who served as US Ambassador to Israel during the Obama administration is returning to the State Department as a senior advisor, the State Department confirmed on Monday. He will be a member of Rob Malley’s Iran negotiations team.
“We are pleased to welcome former US ambassador to Israel Daniel Shapiro back to the State Department,” said a State Department spokesperson. “Dan has joined Special Envoy Malley's team as a special government employee and part-time senior advisor.” AXIOS first reported on Shapiro’s appointment on Sunday.
According to the State Department spokesperson, “US-Iran policy will benefit greatly from the participation of a diplomat of his caliber and experience.” They noted that Shapiro is also “the first of what we plan to be a small group of part-time advisors, who will add to the diversity of perspective and knowledge on the Special Envoy's team.”
Since taking office in January, the Biden administration participated in six rounds of indirect negotiations with Iran in Vienna, seeking a path for both countries to return to compliance with the 2015 nuclear agreement. The Iranians. However, started to stall the negotiations two months ago, shortly before the new president, Ibrahim Raisi, was sworn in, and another round of talks has yet to be scheduled.
US President Joe Biden told Israeli Prime Minister Naftali Bennett on Friday that when it comes to Iran, his administration is “putting diplomacy first, seeing where that takes us.”

PM Bennett meets with President Biden in Washington (credit: AVI OHAYON - GPO)
“But if diplomacy fails,” the President added, “we're ready to turn to other options.” It echoed a similar message that a senior administration official delivered on Wednesday ahead of the meeting, marking a shift in tone.
The White House provided a readout of the conversation between Biden and Bennet on Friday evening, saying the “the leaders discussed the most critical challenges facing the Middle East, including the threat posed by Iran.”

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“The President made clear his commitment to ensure Iran never develops a nuclear weapon,” the White House said in a statement. “The leaders reviewed steps to deter and contain Iran’s dangerous regional behavior. They reiterated their commitments to work constructively and deepen cooperation to address all aspects of Israel’s security against Iran and other threats.”
聯黎部隊延長任務授權,維和人員幫助黎巴嫩軍隊
聯黎部隊由來自 46 個國家的 10,000 名維和人員組成,任務是幫助黎巴嫩軍隊保護該國南部
作者:托瓦·拉扎羅夫
2021 年 8 月 30 日 21:12



聯合國駐黎巴嫩臨時部隊(聯黎部隊)的一名和平守衛站在靠近黎巴嫩和以色列邊境的 Adaisseh 村的一個瞭望點。

(圖片來源:REUTERS/KARAMALLAH DAHER)
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聯黎部隊的任務是幫助黎巴嫩軍隊使利塔尼河以南地區遠離真主黨等未經授權的武裝人員,並防止武器走私。
以色列和美國過去曾呼籲加強聯黎部隊的任務授權,使其能夠更好地監測局勢。
聯黎部隊表示,聯合國安理會最強烈地譴責“對聯黎部隊人員的騷擾和恐嚇行為,並敦促各方確保聯黎部隊的行動自由和進入藍線”。
它還譴責“所有空中和地面侵犯藍線的行為,並強烈呼籲各方尊重停止敵對行動,防止侵犯藍線行為,”它說。此外,聯合國安理會敦促以色列人和黎巴嫩人與聯合國和聯黎部隊充分合作,履行其停火義務。
聯黎部隊由來自 46 個國家的 10 000 名維和人員組成。

2021 年 8 月 6 日,一輛聯合國維和人員(UNIFIL)車輛在黎巴嫩南部黎巴嫩-以色列邊境附近的 Adaiseh 村行駛。(圖片來源:REUTERS/AZIZ TAHER)
當天上午晚些時候,聯合國中東和平進程特別協調員Tor Wennesland告訴聯合國安理會,“聯黎部隊行動區的局勢仍然緊張”。
他強調了 8 月 4 日至 6 日從黎巴嫩向以色列發射火箭彈,而以色列在黎巴嫩南部以炮火和空襲作為回應。他說,真主黨對火箭負責。
Wennesland 在紐約舉行的聯合國安理會月度會議上發表講話,其中包括美國副大使理查德米爾斯在內的 15 個成員國中的許多國家對加沙暴力再次爆發表示擔憂。
美國副特使敦促巴勒斯坦人和以色列人停止煽動性步驟,尤其是在地區緊張局勢升級的情況下。
“美國敦促巴勒斯坦人和以色列人不要採取會加劇緊張局勢並進一步危及過去三個月脆弱和平的行動和言論,”米爾斯告訴聯合國安理會。
米爾斯要求以色列人和巴勒斯坦人制定一份清單,其中包括“煽動暴力”以及巴勒斯坦權力機構對“因恐怖主義行為而被監禁的個人”的賠償。米爾斯還敦促以色列不要進行“領土吞併”和“定居活動”,並停止對巴勒斯坦人的驅逐和拆遷。
“美國對該地區局勢升級的風險深感關切,特別是鑑於最近的挑釁行為”,例如巴勒斯坦“在加沙邊境使用燃燒裝置”。
米爾斯說,加沙邊境暴力事件的重演使得在 5 月為期 11 天的加沙戰爭之後“提供必要的人道主義救濟”變得尤為困難。

2021 年 8 月 6 日,從加沙地帶內發射燃燒氣球後,加沙邊境附近發生火災(來源:消防和救援服務南區)
上個月,以色列向加沙的巴勒斯坦人做出了一系列經濟姿態,包括批准向100,000個貧困家庭提供卡塔爾資金的機制以及放寬過境點的限制。
然而,這並沒有阻止加沙暴力的升級。米爾斯呼籲以色列採取更多措施,改善過境點的貨物准入。他還敦促所有聯合國成員國“加倍努力幫助加沙恢復”。
UNIFIL mandate renewed, peacekeepers to help Lebanese Army
UNIFIL is composed of 10,000 peacekeepers from 46 nations, tasked with helping the Lebanese Army keep the south of the country protected
By TOVAH LAZAROFF
AUGUST 30, 2021 21:12



A PEACEKEEPER of the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) stands at a lookout point in the village of Adaisseh near the Lebanese-Israeli border.

(photo credit: REUTERS/KARAMALLAH DAHER)
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UNIFIL is already tasked with helping the Lebanese Army keep the area south of the Litani River free of unauthorized armed personnel, such as Hezbollah, as well as to prevent arms smuggling.
Israel and the United States have in the past called for the UNIFIL mandate to be strengthened to allow it to better monitor the situation.
The UNSC condemned “acts of harassment and intimidation against UNIFIL personnel in the strongest terms and urges all parties to ensure UNIFIL’s freedom of movement and access to the Blue Line,” UNIFIL said.
It also condemned “all violations of the Blue Line by air and ground, and strongly calls on the parties to respect the cessation of hostilities, prevent Blue Line violations,” it said. In addition, the UNSC urged the Israelis and the Lebanese to cooperate fully with the United Nations and UNIFIL and to fulfill its ceasefire obligations.
UNIFIL is composed of 10,000 peacekeepers from 46 nations.

A UN peacekeepers (UNIFIL) vehicle drives in Adaisseh village, near the Lebanese-Israeli border, southern Lebanon, August 6, 2021. (credit: REUTERS/AZIZ TAHER)
Later in the morning, UN Special Coordinator for the Middle East Peace process Tor Wennesland told the UNSC that the “situation in the UNIFIL area of operations remains tense.”
He highlighted how rockets had been launched from Lebanon towards Israel on 4 and 6 August and Israel had responded with artillery fire and airstrikes in southern Lebanon. Hezbollah took responsibility for the rockets, he said.
Wennesland spoke at the monthly UNSC meeting in New York on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, where many of the 15-member states expressed concerned about a renewed outbreak of Gaza violence, including US Deputy Ambassador Richard Mills.
The US deputy envoy urged Palestinians and Israelis to halt inflammatory steps, particularly in light of escalating regional tensions.
“The United States urges Palestinians and Israelis to refrain from actions and rhetoric that inflame tensions and further endanger the fragile peace of the last three months,” Mills told the UNSC.
Mills took both Israelis and Palestinians to task with a list that included “incitement to violence” as well as the Palestinian Authority’s compensation of “individuals who are imprisoned for acts of terrorism.” Mills also urged Israel not to engage “annexation of territory” and “settlement activity,” and to halt Palestinian evictions and home demolitions.
“The US is deeply concerned about the risk of escalation in the region, particularly in light of the recent provocations” such as the Palestinian “use of incendiary devices along the Gaza border.”
The renewal of Gaza border violence makes it particularly difficult “to deliver humanitarian relief” necessary in the aftermath of the 11-day Gaza war in May, Mills said.

Fires burn close to the Gaza border after incendiary balloons were launched from inside the strip, August 6, 2021 (credit: FIRE AND RESCUE SERVICE SOUTHERN DISTRICT)
Israel in the last month has made a series of economic gestures to the Palestinians in Gaza, including the approval of a mechanism to provide Qatari funds to 100,000 impoverished families and the easing of restrictions at the crossing.
This, however, has not prevented an escalation of Gaza violence. Mills called on Israel to take additional steps at improving access to goods at the crossings. He also urged all UN member states “to redouble their efforts to help Gaza recover.”
PA-埃及-約旦峰會討論與以色列的和平談判
巴勒斯坦權力機構主席馬哈茂德·阿巴斯在巴勒斯坦權力機構外交部長里亞德·馬爾基、民政總局局長和情報總局局長的陪同下抵達開羅。
作者:KHALED ABU TOAMEH , TOVAH LAZAROFF
2021 年 9 月 1 日 20:35



埃及總統阿卜杜勒·法塔赫·塞西於 2019 年出席在埃及伊斯梅利亞舉行的儀式

(照片來源:AMR ABDALLAH DALSH / 路透社)
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巴勒斯坦民族權力機構主席馬哈茂德·阿巴斯週三抵達開羅,他計劃在那裡會見埃及總統阿卜杜勒·法塔赫·塞西和約旦國王阿卜杜拉,討論將談判國際化以達成兩國決議的方法。
預計將於週四舉行的阿巴斯-塞西-阿卜杜拉峰會將討論共同問題和統一巴勒斯坦-埃及-約旦立場的方式,以跟進國際層面的政治活動,並尋求重振巴勒斯坦-埃及-約旦立場。巴勒斯坦高級官員阿扎姆·艾哈邁德說,與以色列的和平進程。
重新推動審查和平進程之際,納夫塔利·貝內特總理澄清說,他無意與阿巴斯會面或進行和平談判。


Bennett 的發言人 Matan Sidi 駁斥了倫敦阿拉伯報紙 Asharq Al-Awsat 的一篇報導,該報導稱 Bennett 已被取消參加本應在開羅舉行的四方會議。
“無意與巴勒斯坦權力機構主席舉行會議,也不期望舉行任何此類會議,”西迪說。
他澄清說,貝內特計劃前往開羅會見塞西,但尚未確定會面日期。
“塞西總統邀請總理在埃及會面,總理很快就會見他,”西迪說。
阿巴斯想要一個國際化的和平進程,在這個進程中,美國不是主要的中間人。艾哈邁德表示,巴勒斯坦權力機構領導層正在尋求埃及和約旦的支持,以在聯合國的保護傘下,在美國、聯合國、俄羅斯和歐盟等四方成員的參與下,重新啟動與以色列的和平進程。
艾哈邁德表示,三方峰會的時間安排極為重要,因為它比計劃在阿爾及利亞舉行的阿拉伯峰會和在紐約舉行的聯合國大會年會提前。
阿巴斯由巴勒斯坦權力機構外交部長里亞德·馬爾基、民政總局局長侯賽因·謝赫和情報總局局長馬吉德·法拉吉陪同。
在訪問開羅前夕,阿巴斯在拉馬拉主持了巴解組織領導人會議,討論圍繞巴勒斯坦問題的最新發展。他還向巴解組織最高決策機構巴解組織執行委員會成員介紹了他週日晚上與國防部長本尼·甘茨會晤的結果。

2021 年 5 月 25 日,巴勒斯坦總統馬哈茂德·阿巴斯在約旦河西岸城市拉馬拉與美國國務卿安東尼·布林肯(未圖示)舉行的聯合新聞發布會上一邊聽一邊調整眼鏡。(圖片來源:ALEX BRANDON/POOL VIA REUTERS)
巴解組織一名官員表示,委員會成員對甘茨-阿巴斯會議的結果表示滿意,因為巴勒斯坦人取得了“巨大成就”。
這位官員說,阿巴斯和甘茨討論了有關巴勒斯坦家庭團聚、釋放在以色列與巴解組織於1993年簽署奧斯陸協議之前被關押的巴勒斯坦安全犯以及圍繞以色列扣除數億美元的爭議等幾個問題。由於支付給囚犯和“烈士”家屬的款項,巴勒斯坦權力機構的稅收收入增加了謝克爾。
“總統向巴解組織執行委員會簡要介紹了他在拉馬拉與本尼·甘茨部長的會晤,會議重點討論了堅持國際合法性和兩國解決方案的必要性,儘管我們知道當前以色列政府的情況尚未成熟和平進程,”委員會在會後的一份聲明中說。
它說,阿巴斯和甘茨同意致力於解決一些問題,例如釋放安全囚犯和找回在襲擊以色列人時遇難的巴勒斯坦人的屍體。
聲明中寫道,兩人還同意致力於解決與“停止定居點和定居者襲擊以及尊重國際合法性決議”有關的其他問題。
在談到即將舉行的三方峰會時,巴解組織委員會表示,它的目標是“統一他們之間的願景,以應對推動中東和平進程的政治、區域和國際努力,以結束以色列對巴勒斯坦和自 1967 年以來被佔領的阿拉伯土地。”
委員會譴責“以色列持續對巴勒斯坦人民犯下的罪行,奪走了我們人民數十名烈士的生命,繼續擴大定居點和拆除公民家園,並威脅要驅逐成千上萬的家庭”。他們在東耶路撒冷和西岸的家園和農場。
“我們的人民將繼續堅定不移地進行鬥爭和民眾抵抗,直到佔領被擊敗,獨立的巴勒斯坦國建立,以東耶路撒冷為首都,”該委員會表示,該委員會表示完全拒絕貝內特前後的聲明。他最近訪問了美國。
“執委會還強調,以方必須明白,繼續在耶路撒冷和希伯倫實施定居、殺戮、逮捕和試圖改變伊斯蘭和基督教宗教場所性質的政策,不會實現其擴張野心,也不會帶來安全。和穩定性,”委員會補充說。“實現所有人的安全與和平的唯一途徑是結束以色列對巴勒斯坦被佔國土地的佔領。
美國一直是過去以巴談判的主要中間人,上一輪談判是在 2014 年。然而,拜登並沒有提出新的和平倡議,也沒有試圖恢復過去的和平倡議。
巴勒斯坦權力機構總理穆罕默德·什塔耶 (Mohammed Shtayyeh) 週二也強調了國際化以巴和平進程的必要性,因為他澄清說“華盛頓根本沒有和平倡議”。
Shtayyeh 在他給 Nizami Ganjavi 國際中心的 Zoom 演講中談到了目前的僵局。
他說,以色列新政府正在加速其“殖民計劃和定居點建設”。
它“沒有政治平台,也沒有主動結束與我們的衝突。在我看來,它所關心的只是維持現狀,我們所有人都知道現狀是不可持續的,”Shtayyeh 說。
Shtayyeh 警告說,這種“政治真空……非常危險”。
“它需要充滿一些主動性。美國沒有主動權,歐洲沒有主動權,以色列人不知道如何結束與我們的衝突……而阿拉伯國家正朝著完全不同的方向前進,”Shtayyeh 說。
在耶路撒冷,外交部長亞伊爾·拉皮德證實,目前無法與巴勒斯坦人進行直接和平談判,部分原因是拉馬拉沒有民選領導人。
據推測,由左翼到右翼政黨組成的貝內特-拉皮德政府沒有能力應對以巴和平進程。
“這是一個專注於國內問題的政府,”拉皮德告訴外國記者。他告訴記者,他支持兩國解決衝突,但不會承諾在兩年後接替貝內特出任總理時重啟談判。
PA-Egypt-Jordan summit to discuss peace talks with Israel
PA President Mahmoud Abbas arrived in Cairo accompanied by PA Foreign Minister Riyad Malki, head of the General Authority of Civil Affairs, and General Intelligence Service Chief.
By KHALED ABU TOAMEH, TOVAH LAZAROFF
SEPTEMBER 1, 2021 20:35



EGYPTIAN PRESIDENT Abdel Fattah al-Sisi attends a ceremony in Ismailia, Egypt, in 2019

(photo credit: AMR ABDALLAH DALSH / REUTERS)
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Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas on Wednesday arrived in Cairo, where he is scheduled to meet with Egyptian President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi and Jordan’s King Abdullah to discuss ways to internationalize talks toward a two-state resolution.
The Abbas-Sisi-Abdullah summit, which is expected to take place on Thursday, will discuss common issues and ways of unifying the Palestinian-Egyptian-Jordanian position in order to follow up on the political activities at the international level and seek to revive the peace process with Israel, senior Palestinian official Azzam al-Ahmed said.
The renewed push to review the peace process comes as Prime Minister Naftali Bennett has clarified that he has no intention of meeting with Abbas or engaging in peace talks.
Ahmed said that the timing of the tripartite summit was extremely important because it comes ahead of the planned Arab summit in Algeria and the annual meeting of the UN General Assembly in New York.
Abbas is accompanied by PA Foreign Minister Riyad Malki, head of the General Authority of Civil Affairs Hussein al-Sheikh, and General Intelligence Service Chief Majed Faraj.
On the eve of his visit to Cairo, Abbas chaired a meeting of the PLO leadership in Ramallah to discuss the latest developments surrounding the Palestinian issue. He also briefed the members of the PLO Executive Committee, the highest decision-making body of the organization, on the outcome of his Sunday night meeting with Defense Minister Benny Gantz.

Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas adjusts his glasses as he listens during a joint press conference with US Secretary of State Antony Blinken (not pictured), in the West Bank city of Ramallah, May 25, 2021. (credit: ALEX BRANDON/POOL VIA REUTERS)
A PLO official said that the committee members expressed satisfaction with the results of the Gantz-Abbas meeting because of the “big achievements” for the Palestinians.
The official said that Abbas and Gantz discussed several issues related to Palestinian family reunification, the release of Palestinian security prisoners incarcerated before the signing of the Oslo Accords in 1993 between Israel and the PLO, and the controversy surrounding the deduction by Israel of hundreds of millions of shekels from tax revenues belonging to the PA because of payments made to the families of prisoners and “martyrs.”
“The president briefed the PLO Executive Committee on his meeting in Ramallah with Minister Benny Gantz, which focused on the need to adhere to international legitimacy and the two-state solution, despite our knowledge that the current Israeli government’s situation is not ripe for a serious peace process,” the committee said in a statement after the meeting.
It said that Abbas and Gantz agreed to work on solving a number of issues, such as the release of security prisoners and the recovery of the bodies of Palestinians killed while carrying out attacks against Israelis.
The two also agreed to work on solving other issues related to “halting settlements and settler attacks, and respecting international legitimacy resolutions,” the statement read.
Referring to the upcoming tripartite summit, the PLO committee said that it aims “to unify the vision between them to deal with political, regional and international efforts to move the peace process in the Middle East in order to end the Israeli occupation of the Palestinian and Arab lands occupied since 1967.”
The committee condemned “the continuous Israeli crimes against the Palestinian people, which claimed the lives of dozens of martyrs of our people, the continuation of settlement expansion and the demolition of citizens’ homes, as well as the threat to evict thousands of families” from their homes and farms in east Jerusalem and the West Bank.
“Our people will remain steadfast and persistent in their struggle and popular resistance until the occupation is defeated and the independent Palestinian state is established with East Jerusalem as its capital,” according to the committee, which expressed its total rejection of Bennett’s statements before and after his recent visit to the US.
“The Executive Committee also stressed that the Israeli side must understand that continuing the policy of settlement, killing, arrests, and attempting to change the character of Islamic and Christian religious places in Jerusalem and Hebron will not achieve its expansionist ambitions and will not bring security and stability,” the committee added. “The only way to security and peace for all is only by ending the Israeli occupation of the lands of the Occupied State of Palestine.
The US has been the main broker for past Israeli-Palestinian talks, the last round of which was in 2014. Biden, however, has not put forward a new peace initiative or attempted to revive past ones.
PA Prime Minister Mohammed Shtayyeh on Tuesday also focused on the need for an internationalized Israeli-Palestinian peace process as he clarified that “Washington does not have a peace initiative at all.”
Shtayyeh spoke about the current stalemate in a Zoom talk he gave to the Nizami Ganjavi International Center.
The new Israeli government, he said, is accelerating its “colonization program and construction of settlements.”
It “has no political platform and no initiative to end the conflict with us. It seems to me that all it cares for is to maintain the status quo and all of us know that the status quo is unsustainable,” Shtayyeh said.
This “political vacuum … is very dangerous,” Shtayyeh warned.
“It needs to be filled with some initiative. The US does not have an initiative, Europe does not have an initiative, the Israelis have no idea how to end the conflict with us… and Arab countries are going in a totally different direction,” Shtayyeh said.
In Jerusalem, Foreign Minister Yair Lapid confirmed that at present direct peace talks with the Palestinians was not possible, partially because there was no elected leadership in Ramallah.
It’s been presumed that the Bennett-Lapid government composed of parties from the Left-to-the-Right, is not equipped to tackle the Israeli-Palestinian peace process.
“This is a government that will concentrate on domestic issues,” Lapid told foreign journalists. He told reporters that he supports a two-state resolution to the conflict but would not commit to renew talks when he replaces Bennett as Prime Minister in two years.
公眾支持政府的宗教改革、自由化——調查
在圍繞 kashrut、皈依和極端正統教育的問題上,大多數猶太公眾支持前者的自由化和對後者的強硬立場。
作者:傑瑞米·沙龍
2021 年 9 月 1 日 22:15



2021 年 7 月 21 日,耶路撒冷的 Kashrut 證書。

(圖片來源:MARC ISRAEL SELLEM/耶路撒冷郵報)
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鑑於週三在 Hiddush 組織的 2021 年以色列宗教和國家指數中發布的對這些問題的民意調查,以色列的公眾輿論似乎支持政府對宗教生活和國家與極端正統派的互動提出的各種改革。
在圍繞 kashrut、皈依和 haredi 教育的問題上,包括利庫德集團 (Likud) 選民在內的大多數猶太公眾支持前者的自由化並對後者採取更強硬的立場。
該調查由史密斯希杜什研究所於 2021 年 7 月對來自猶太人口的 800 名成年人進行了抽樣,抽樣誤差為 3.5%。
政府推進的一項主要改革是提供kashrut監督,其中首席拉比將失去對市場的壟斷,而是成為獨立kashrut監督組織的監管者。
極端正統黨派和首席拉比將改革譴責為“以色列卡什魯特的毀滅”以及對首席拉比和宗教生活的破壞。
但根據 Hiddush 民意調查,只有 22% 的人回答說他們只會在有首席拉比的 kashrut 證書的餐館吃飯,而 25% 的人對替代的 kashrut 認證感到滿意,例如 Tzohar 宗教-猶太復國主義拉比協會的證書,或超級- 東正教當局。
另有 53% 的人在選擇去哪裡吃飯和買什麼食物時根本不考慮 kashrut 認證。
即使在 41% 的公眾中表示他們根據猶太法律嚴格遵守 kashrut,也只有 47% 的人回答說他們只在首席拉比的監督下食用食物。

首席拉比齊聚一堂,討論對皈依和 kashrut 系統的改革(圖片來源:CHIEF RABBINATE)
現任政府提議的另一項改革是下放對猶太人皈依的控制權,允許市政首席拉比建立自己的皈依法庭,所有這些人都必須獲得東正教首席拉比的資格。
儘管 Hiddush 沒有專門針對這項改革進行民意調查,但其指數確實發現 65% 的猶太公眾認為,出於民事目的對個人皈依者的猶太人身份的承認不需要依賴於在東正教過程中皈依。
在接受調查的人中,35% 的人表示,父親是猶太人,母親是非猶太人的移民,即猶太法律認定為非猶太人的人,如果他們認定為非猶太人,即使沒有皈依宗教,也應被視為猶太人。
另有 30% 的人表示,世界猶太人中常見的任何宗教皈依,無論是東正教、保守派還是改革派,都可以被他們接受以在以色列授予猶太人地位。

只有 35% 的人表示,只有當個人在東正教過程中皈依時,才應給予公民承認為猶太人。
75% 的受訪者聲稱,應該要求國家資助的極端正統學校教授核心課程,如果他們拒絕,就應該削減資金。
Yisrael Beytenu 領導人和財政部長Avigdor Liberman在最近的競選活動中多次做出這一承諾,儘管有關該主題的立法尚未推進。
只有 25% 的公眾認為不應要求極端正統學校進行核心課程學習,並且應該允許父母為他們的孩子選擇沒有核心課程學習的教育,而不會危及他們從學校獲得的資金。國庫。
另一個重要發現發現,大約 11% 的受訪者表示他們認為自己是非正統派;6% 的人表示他們認為他們是改革派,5% 的人表示他們認為是保守派。
另有 19% 的人說他們是猶太復國主義正統派,2% 的人說他們是嚴格的宗教猶太復國主義者,11% 的人是極端正統派。
57% 的人表示他們沒有宗教信仰。
大約 61% 的受訪者表示他們支持以色列三大猶太教派的平等地位:東正教、保守派和改革派。
它得到了所有聯盟黨的大多數選民的支持,除了亞米納選民,他們在這個問題上存在分歧,其中 48% 的人支持非正統教派的平等地位。
在 3 月 21 日的選舉中,約有 57% 的利庫德集團選民也表示支持平等地位。
“該指數及其過去十年數據的比較證明,以色列公眾已經厭倦了宗教問題上的‘現狀’,這掩蓋了許多政客關於以色列‘傳統的、有宗教傾向的多數’的陳舊言論。 ,'”Hiddush 美國董事長斯坦利·P·戈爾德和首席執行官拉比·烏里·雷格夫 (Rabbi Uri Regev) 說。
“他們歪曲事實並誤導猶太領導人,聲稱大多數以色列猶太人希望在安息日、婚姻、kashrut、'誰是猶太人'等問題上維持國家的宗教強制力。令人信服且一致的指數數據駁斥了這種對事實的自私歪曲。正如我們和其他人在過去幾年和最近的選舉週期中進行的許多調查所表明的那樣,公眾支持宗教多元化,更喜歡廣泛的民間聯盟,不服從極端正統黨派的命令。 ”
Public supports gov't religious reforms, liberalization - survey
On issues surrounding kashrut, conversion, and ultra-Orthodox education, the majority of the Jewish public support liberalization of the former and a tougher stance on the latter.
By JEREMY SHARON
SEPTEMBER 1, 2021 22:15



Kashrut certificate in Jerusalem, July 21, 2021.

(photo credit: MARC ISRAEL SELLEM/THE JERUSALEM POST)
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Public opinion in Israel appears to support the various reforms proposed by the government to religious life and the state’s interaction with the ultra-Orthodox sector, in light of polling on these issues published on Wednesday in the Hiddush organization’s 2021 Israel Religion and State Index.
On issues surrounding kashrut, conversion and haredi education, the majority of the Jewish public, including Likud voters, support liberalization of the former and a tougher stance on the latter.
The survey was conducted by the Smith Institute for Hiddush in July 2021 on a sample of 800 adults from the Jewish population with a sampling error of 3.5%.
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One of the principle reforms advanced by the government is to the provision of kashrut supervision, in which the Chief Rabbinate will lose its monopoly over the market and instead become a regulator of independent kashrut supervision organizations.
The ultra-Orthodox parties and the Chief Rabbinate have denounced the reforms as “the destruction of kashrut in Israel” and the undermining of the Chief Rabbinate and religious life.
But according to the Hiddush poll, only 22% responded that they would only eat in restaurants with kashrut certificates from the Chief Rabbinate, while 25% would be satisfied with alternative kashrut certification such as that of the Tzohar religious-Zionist rabbinical association, or ultra-Orthodox authorities.
Another 53% do not take kashrut certification into account whatsoever when choosing where to eat and what food to buy.
Even among the 41% of the public that said they strictly observe kashrut according to Jewish law, only 47% responded that they consume only food under the supervision of the Chief Rabbinate.

Chief rabbis gathered to discuss reforms to the conversion and kashrut system (credit: CHIEF RABBINATE)
Another proposed reform by the current government is to decentralize control over Jewish conversion, to allow municipal chief rabbis, all of whom must have qualifications from the Orthodox Chief Rabbinate, to establish their own conversion courts.
Although Hiddush did not poll specifically on this reform, its index did find that 65% of the Jewish public thinks that recognition for civil purposes of an individual convert’s Jewish status does not need to be dependent on converting in an Orthodox process.
Of those polled, 35% said immigrants with a Jewish father and non-Jewish mother, someone who Jewish law determines to be non-Jewish, should be recognized as Jewish if they identify as such, even without religious conversion.
Another 30% said that any religious conversion common among world Jewry, whether it be Orthodox, Conservative or Reform, would be acceptable to them to confer Jewish status in Israel.

ONLY 35% said civil recognition as Jews should only be afforded if the individual converted in an Orthodox process.
And 75% of respondents asserted that state-funded ultra-Orthodox schools should be required to teach core curricular s