每日英語跟讀 Ep.K034: 托兒照顧可造福母子兩代

2021-01-21·3 分鐘

本集介紹

每日英語跟讀 Ep.K034: How Good Child Care Helps Mothers, and the Men They Raise





















As many American parents know, hiring care for young children during the workday is punishingly expensive, costing the typical family about a third of its income.





















Helping parents pay for that care would be expensive for society, too. Yet recent studies show that of any policy aimed to help struggling families, aid for high-quality care has the biggest economic payoff for parents and their children — and even their grandchildren. It has the biggest positive effect on women’s employment and pay. It’s especially helpful for low-income families, because it can propel generations of children toward increased earnings, better jobs, improved health, more education and decreased criminal activity as adults.





















許多美國父母都知道,在上班日請人照顧幼兒的費用高得要命,得花掉一般家庭三分之一的收入。





















幫助父母支付托兒費也需花費很高的社會成本。不過,最近的一些研究顯示,在幫助經濟困難家庭的所有政策中,資助高品質托兒照顧,對父母和他們的子女,甚至孫子輩,都能獲得最大的經濟回報。對婦女就業和受薪有最大的正面效益。這對低薪家庭幫助尤其大,因為可以促使世世代代的兒童成年後邁向更高的薪水、更好的工作、更健康的身體、更高的教育程度和較少的犯罪活動。





















Affordable care for children under 5, long a goal of Democrats, is now being championed by Ivanka Trump.





















The Department of Health and Human Services says child care should cost 7 percent of a family’s income at most — but 42 percent of families who buy care for young children spend considerably more than that, according to census data analyzed by Beth Mattingly at the University of New Hampshire. A report by New America and Care.com put the average cost of child care in the United States at $16,514 a year.





















5歲以下兒童的可負擔托兒照顧,是民主黨長期以來的目標,現在由伊凡卡.川普領軍推動。





















美國衛生暨人類服務部表示,托兒照顧頂多只應花掉一個家庭收入的7%,但根據新罕布夏大學的貝絲.麥亭利對人口普查資料的分析,花錢請人照顧幼兒的家庭有42%花費遠高過這個比率。「新美國與照顧網站」的一份報告估計,在美國請人照顧兒童的平均花費為每年1萬6514美元。





















It’s children with parents who can least afford high-quality care who benefit most from it, research has found. That is because affluent children have better alternatives. For well-off children, some studies have linked day care, especially low-quality care early in life, to achievement and behavior problems.





















A powerful new study — which demonstrated long-term results by following children from birth until age 35 — found that high-quality care during the earliest years can influence whether both mothers and children born into disadvantage lead more successful lives. The study was led by James J. Heckman, a Nobel laureate economist at the University of Chicago.





















研究發現,父母最無力負擔高品質托兒照顧的孩子受益最大。這是因為富裕家庭的兒童有更好的其他選擇。針對富家子弟,一些研究認為托兒照顧,特別是年幼時的低品質照顧,與長大後的成就和行為問題有關聯。





















有項強有力的新研究藉由追蹤兒童出生到35歲的過程以展現長期結果,發現最年幼幾年的高品質照顧,對母親與生在弱勢家庭的孩子能否邁向成功人生,有一定影響力。這項研究由芝加哥大學獲諾貝爾獎的經濟學家詹姆士.赫克曼帶領。





















“They’re engaged more in the workforce, they’re now active participants of society, they’re more educated, they have higher skills,” Heckman said. “So what we’ve done is promoted mobility across generations.”





















The study analyzed two well-known experimental programs in North Carolina, which offered free, full-time care to low-income children age 8 weeks to 5 years, most of whom were black and lived with a single mother. The children in the control group were at home or in lower-quality programs.





















The mothers of those in the experimental program earned more when the children were in preschool, and the difference was still there two decades later.





















赫克曼說:「他們更投入勞動,他們現在是活躍的社會參與者,他們的教育程度更高,他們有更好的技能。因此,我們所做的是促進跨世代的流動性。」





















這項研究分析北卡羅來納州兩項著名的實驗計畫,此二計畫對8周到5歲的低收入家庭兒童提供免費、全天照顧,主要是與單親媽媽同住的黑人小孩。對照組的兒童在家或接受較低品質的托兒計畫。





















實驗計畫兒童的母親在孩子上幼稚園時已能賺得更多收入,20年後這差距依然存在。





















Source article: https://paper.udn.com/udnpaper/POH0067/314555/web/





















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